Hydraulic systems have radically changed how many applications harness power and carry out actuation, allowing pressure to be efficiently transferred through a fluid medium to take advantage of its incompressible nature. In order for a hydraulic system to effectively carry out operations, it must have some means of converting hydraulic pressure into torque and angular displacement. This is made possible through the use of hydraulic motors, those of which we will discuss in brief detail.
Integrated circuits, chips, and semiconductors are all terms that are frequently used in the electronics industry. They are all essential components that have made powerful impacts on the development of digital technology. However, with “integrated circuits” and “chips” often being used to refer to the same thing, you may have wondered what is the difference? If you are curious as to how these words all relate and differ, read on as we explore the use of these familiar terms.
If you have ever been on an aircraft, you may wonder how pilots know where to go. To answer this, you must understand how aviation navigation works. Aircraft fly between imaginary vertical points called waypoints that are equipped on the aircraft GPS database. Before GPS, pilots would fly magnetic headings and timed legs, or they would utilize radio navigation beacons to acquire position information through basic instruments in the cockpit.
Microprocessors and microcontrollers are two devices that serve as integral components of most programmable electronics. However, they are often conflated for one another despite having many core differences, some of which include cost, speed, and power consumption. To better understand these versatile apparatuses, we will cover their unique features and technological variances.
Harnessing electricity for our own use has radically changed society over the past couple centuries, allowing us to achieve lighting during low-visibility conditions, create powerful electrical systems that make our daily operations easier, and so much more. While we have harnessed electricity and provided it to much of the world’s population, electricity still remains volatile and quite dangerous if not managed properly. Within a home, conditions such as electrical faults and surges can lead to various issues, potentially destroying electrical devices, harming individuals, and causing fires. As such, we have developed various ways to better protect ourselves and our surroundings from the hazards of electrical faults. One of the main ways in which we protect ourselves and our equipment is through the use of equipment known as circuit breakers, those of which we will discuss in detail in this blog.
Whether you are looking to try glass from another manufacturer or want to put antique lenses to good use, lens adapters are here to help. Dating back at least a few decades, photographers and videographers have been using lens adapters to expand the range of lenses they can use for their cameras without needing to buy a whole new system. Lens adapters can be simply mechanical or electronic, allowing some to reinvigorate vintage glass, while others allow you to use a wider set of modern lenses. In this blog, we will explore how lens adapters work and why they can be useful for various applications.
A network interface card, or NIC, is a common computer component that allows for devices to achieve network connectivity. Whether one wishes to establish a small local network of computers or to access servers for exploring the World Wide Web, a network interface card is generally needed for any wired or wireless network connection. In this blog, we will provide a brief overview of the network interface card, allowing you to have a better grasp on its functionality, implementation, and more.
While car horns alert nearby drivers of your presence, airplane horns serve a different purpose. You may ask yourself: “When does an airplane need to honk its horn?” Well, this does not have a simple answer. To better understand the importance of the aircraft horn, this blog will cover when it is used, what it sounds like, and where it is located.
Any aircraft needs a well-functioning electrical system for its in-operation functions. Such electrical systems are responsible for streamlining power to the auxiliary fuel pump, avionics, lights, and the engine starter motor, among other components.
While they might seem like a small element, lock washers play significant role in securing fastened surfaces. Paired directly with an installed bolt, lock washers strengthen the connection by preventing rotational movement. This is exceedingly important in vibration-generating applications, such as aviation and heavy machinery, since prolonged vibration may lead to the bolt coming loose or uninstalled completely. Like most other fastening elements, lock washers are typically made to follow ANSI, NAS, SAE, and other such standards, but may also be designed to fit in specialty applications. In this blog, we will discuss the nuances associated with the various lock washer designs.
A toggle switch is a type of electronic switch, serving as one of the most commonplace electrical components with their simple operation and wide applicational use. In general, an electronic switch is used to achieve binary on-off control for a device, ensuring that the flow of current can be interrupted or permitted to flow with ease. Generally, this is carried out by adjusting the metallic contacts situated within the switch assembly. In this blog, we will provide an overview of toggle switches and their most common types, allowing you to see if they are an optimal fit for your operational needs.
When you think of adhesive tape , the stick Scotch variety may come to mind first. However, they are not the only ones on the market. In fact, adhesive tape falls under a completely different category of adhesives, finding use in industrial applications that require enhanced adhesive characteristics. With this in mind, this blog will cover adhesive tapes, their various types, and their uses.
When the first aircraft equipped with a jet engine took flight in 1939, it brought about a revolution in aviation technology. For the first time since engine-powered flight was possible, aircraft could travel long distances at speeds previously thought impossible. Today, nearly every commercial aircraft is designed with a jet engine as its primary source of power. While there are slight variations in the particular engines used in different aircraft, only three broad categories are employed for jet aircraft. In this blog, we will discuss the turbojet, turboprop, and turbofan, which will give you a better understanding of the most commonly used jet engines in civil and military aviation.
Aircraft are often subject to countless stressors and environments, exposing their structures to degradation over time as a result of exposure to extreme temperatures, corrosive chemicals, rain, saltwater, humidity, and much more. As the airframe and the other major structures of aircraft are made from metal, corrosion is one of the most dangerous forms of damage that can occur. To best guard aircraft, all metal structures are provided corrosion resistance, that of which may come in the form of a corrosion-resistant alloy, coating, paint, or metal. Furthermore, various surface coatings may be used to further combat the onset of corrosion.
Improper lubrication in a rotating shaft for a pump or fan can result in systemic failure. Now, imagine the importance lubrication may have for a larger application like an aircraft engine. The primary purpose of using a lubricant is to reduce friction between moving parts. In an engine, lubricants have multiple functions. Lubricants play a role in engine cooling, sealing and cushioning moving parts, cleaning the interior of the engine, and protecting against the deterioration of materials. Similarly, aircraft engine cooling systems protect the engine from excessive heat damage by using a liquid coolant to dissipate heat and provide air flow. In this blog, we will be covering the importance of aircraft engine lubrication and cooling systems, their unique features, and advantages.
The aircraft fuel system is paramount to flight operations, serving to manage and distribute fuel for engine functionality. Any compromisation of the fuel system is highly dangerous, and any noticed leaking or malfunction should be remedied prior to undertaking another flight. Issues with the fuel system can lead to various hazards, ranging from fuel starvation to an explosion. As such, aircraft personnel should be familiar with standard repair procedures for the means of preventing risky situations.
Trim tabs are a common addition to modern aircraft, coming in the form of small surfaces that are attached to the trailing edge of control surfaces. As a highly beneficial type of component, a trim tab serves to reduce or eliminate the need for the application of a control force in order to counteract aerodynamic forces for keeping an aircraft straight and level. In this blog, we will provide a brief overview of the four main types of trim tabs, allowing you to better understand how they are used and the benefits that they bring.
It is no secret that aircraft can be an expensive vehicle to manufacture and procure, especially up and coming models with advanced features. With the average passenger airliner reaching upwards of $230 million and many single-engine planes being priced near $100,000, one may wonder why aircraft cost so much. In this blog, we will provide a brief overview of the aircraft designing and manufacturing process, allowing you to better understand the reason behind the price tag of various models.
The spark plug is an essential component of countless aircraft engines, providing the sparks necessary for igniting fuel-and-air mixtures. Engine malfunctions are commonly attributable to a faulty spark plug, often resulting from a number of conditions that affect such components. To prevent the inefficient operation of spark plugs or their outright failure, aircraft owners should carry out regular inspections and maintenance practices. In this blog, we will discuss the most common causes of faulty spark plugs, allowing you to best care for your engine and its components.
The cockpit is the area of an aircraft from which the pilot controls the aircraft. It contains the instrument panel, which features the flight instruments and the controls that allow the pilot to fly the aircraft. Every cockpit features dozens of instruments, but some are more important than others. The most important flight instruments are the airspeed indicator, altitude indicator, altimeter, vertical speed indicator, heading indicator, and turn coordinator. Together, these instruments comprise the ‘six pack’ and represent the most basic instruments found in essentially all aircraft cockpits. The six pack was first established in 1937 by the United Kingdom’s Royal Air Force, and has since been adopted worldwide. In this blog, we will discuss each of the six pack instruments and their unique functions.
The radar is a detection system that relies on the transmission of radio waves to discern the range, velocity, and/or angle of an object. Depending on the application, a radar may be used to detect and monitor aircraft, spacecraft, ships, missiles, weather formations, automobiles, or terrain. While radar technology now serves numerous industries and applications with its functionalities, it was not too long ago that its development was a top military secret.
Prior to the 1970s, very few aircraft had an avionics master switch for the simple reason that aircraft simply didn’t have many avionics to protect. Another reason aircraft from this era didn’t need an avionics master switch was because vacuum tube radios weren’t subject to damage from spikes in the charging system when the aircraft was started with the radios already turned on. However, that all changed when tubes were replaced by silicon. If you start the aircraft’s engine with modern, solid-state radios turned on, there is a good chance you will damage the avionics. Even if it isn’t plain to see, the damage will have been done.
The landing gear system of an aircraft is crucial to its operations, ensuring that the vehicle is capable of landing and stopping on a runway without risking damage or safety. With a plethora of moving parts that are in constant interaction and the impact forces caused by touchdowns, landing gear needs to be regularly inspected and serviced to ensure that any issue or hazard is detected and remedied as soon as possible. From cleaning parts to remove contaminants to conducting adjustments for assemblies, the maintenance of landing gear systems is thorough and requires precision to be carried out correctly.
While major aircraft accidents are extremely rare in occurrence, it is critical that investigators are always able to thoroughly determine what caused the incident so that it can be prevented in the future. With flight recorder devices placed within an aircraft, investigators can access pertinent information such as flight data, pilot conversations, and much more. In this blog, we will discuss the functionality and use of flight recorder equipment, allowing you to better understand their immense role in continuing safety efforts for aviation.
The fuel system is a crucial facet of aircraft operation, allowing for the combustion of fuel and air mixtures to achieve heavier-than-air-flight. Despite its advanced construction and robust capabilities, the aircraft fuel system is vulnerable to a variety of issues and damages that are caused by fuel contamination. Oftentimes, the contamination damage that a fuel system may face ranges from the corrosion of the fuel tank to the failure of components. As such, being aware of the common causes of fuel contamination, as well as how to prevent them, can greatly aid in the protection of the aircraft fuel system. Generally speaking, the most common contaminants that can affect the aircraft fuel system and its parts include water, particles, and microorganisms.
There are many great reasons to repair items during aircraft maintenance rather than replacing them altogether. The benefits of this include cost-saving, keeping a serviceable item in service, helping a mechanic gain business, and creating less waste. However, it is important to differentiate when a part can be repaired versus when it must be replaced. In this blog we will discuss this conundrum in further detail.
Aircraft owners all know the joy of owning their own private aircraft and having the skies at their fingertips. However, aircraft owners also know the many aircraft-related fees that pile up month after month. From hangar fees to fuel and general maintenance, yearly costs can reach tens of thousands of dollars. As such, many people look for quick and easy ways to save a bit of money. This leads many aircraft owners to ask the question “can I replace aviation oil with automotive engine oil?” The simple answer is no, but this blog will go into greater detail about the differences between the two oils and why they aren’t interchangeable.
Printed circuit boards (PCB) are an electronic product that serve as the backbone of many electronics and systems, providing mechanical support and electrical interconnectivity between components. Printed circuit boards serve virtually all commercially produced electronic devices, ranging in application from remote controls to computer servers. In order for a printed circuit board to function properly, they require various parts and components to be attached to them, each playing their different roles to conduct operations as a whole. In this blog, we will discuss some of the commonly used printed circuit board components, allowing you to better understand how they provide for electronics and systems.
In the realm of internet networking and wireless communications, it can be confusing to understand what each device contributes and how each functions. The modem and router in particular are two network devices that are commonly confused for one another, especially with modern devices often combining the two in one single unit. Despite this, understanding the difference between the modem and router can greatly benefit your knowledge of computer networks and communications, allowing you to be more aware when working with such devices.
There are various manners and methods in which mechanics can go about implementing safe aircraft turbine engine maintenance. Turbine support strategies differ generally as indicated by the plan and development of the specific motor. The point by point strategies suggested by the manufacturer ought to be followed when performing reviews or support. For more details on the procedures and the factors that affect maintenance, read the article below.
While the aircraft may be one of the greatest engineering marvels of our time, their advanced technology and capabilities are fairly meaningless when disassembled. Fasteners are commercial hardware parts that may be used to secure two or more components together in either a permanent or non-permanent fashion. Millions of fasteners may be used to assemble structures, equipment, systems, and other components of a single aircraft. Rivets in particular are an important type of mechanical aircraft fastener that is often used for much of the assembly of an aircraft, and there are many types of rivets that are installed throughout the structure. As aircraft hardware parts, roughly 40,000 rivets may be used on a single Boeing 747 wing for assembly and integrity, acting as testament to their importance for aviation. In this blog, we will discuss how rivets function to hold an aircraft together, as well as the various common types of rivets that may be present on an aircraft.
The applied science of hydraulics has been a part of human ingenuity since ancient times. From irrigation to dams, humans have established the utilization of the forces of water pressure for applications such as transmission, generation, and control of power. In the realm of aviation, the aircraft hydraulic system has been an integral facet of aircraft in-flight functions since the 1920’s. Over time, the uses of hydraulic power and aircraft hydraulic system components have steadily increased due to their cost-effectiveness, reliability, and capabilities. In this blog, we will discuss the basics of the aircraft hydraulic system, what components they help power, as well as their advantages.
The turboprop engine is a configuration of a turbine engine that powers a connected propeller. Turbine engines are incredibly complex, but in their most basic form, not as daunting as they might seem. The primary components of a turboprop engine are an air intake engine, compressor, combustor, turbine, and propelling nozzle. Air is drawn in via the intake where it is compressed by the compressor. The compressed air moves into the combustor or combustion chamber, where fuel is added and the mixture ignites. This hot, combusted gas expands and is pushed toward a vector. The expanding gas is directed toward the propeller through the reduction gearing. Further expansion of these gases occurs in the propelling nozzle where they are reduced to atmospheric pressure. A turboprop engine’s exhaust gases do not contain enough energy to create significant thrust, so the aircraft relies on the spinning propellers to produce thrust.
You tend to run across many different connectors when you’re working out in the field. Even the most skilled can find it difficult to distinguish between different tools and connectors. If you’re among the workforce employed in the manufacturing and supply chain industry, it’s important to learn how to differentiate between your tools. Here, we’ll discuss two common connectors tools that are often seen in and used for smaller line fittings.
The main difference between a turboprop and a turbojet is that the former refers to a jet engine with a propeller attached to the front, while the latter is simply your standard jet engine. If you are in the market to purchase either a turboprop or turbojet, but are unsure of which to select, consider the benefits that each carry. This article will discuss more about the different benefits that each offers.
Each aircraft features a system of intricate hardware known as flight controls working in harmony to perform the tasks needed for flight. Within each flight control system, there is a primary and secondary control system. The primary Flight control system is made up of the ailerons, elevator/stabilator, and rudder. In the secondary system you will find the aircraft wing flaps, leading edge devices, spoilers, and trim systems.
Thanks to the rise of affordable integrated circuitry, modern general aviation aircraft now mount a wide range of electronics and avionics capable of offering pilots real-time displays of weather conditions, navigating in all three dimensions thanks to satellite signals, and storing a comprehensive database of engine operation parameters. However, these devices require a reliable power source, which takes the form of a generator or alternator. These devices are rated in volts and amps in terms of their power output. Generators and alternators come in 12 and 14 volt variants, with 12 volt variants running at 12, 15, 25, 38, 50, and 60 amps, while 24-volt alternators typically feature 60 or 95 amps.
As with any aircraft, fasteners are an extremely important component that enables the fixing of one part to another. Set screws are a rare form of screws that are an important fastener for when components need to be secured without any protrusions. The entire body of the screw is threaded and is headless, often being installed with an allen key or special tools. The screw is installed into a threaded hole of the two objects to prevent movement of one object relative to the other. One of the more common examples for set screw use is securing a pulley or gear to a shaft.
At high altitudes, temperatures can drop below zero degrees Fahrenheit. Combined with seasonally cold temperatures, heating an aircraft’s cabin interior becomes a necessity, not a luxury. Pressurized aircraft use air cycle conditioning systems that mix bleed air from the engines with cold air produced by the air cycle machine expansion turbine to obtain warm air for the cabin. Some turbine-powered aircraft not equipped with air cycle systems still use engine compressor bleed air to heat the cabin, by mixing it with ambient air, or cabin return air, and distributing it back throughout the aircraft via ducting. These bleed air heating systems are simple and function well, as long as the valves, ducting, and controls work well.
Resistor networks are networks of… resistors. Obviously. They combine groups of three to over twenty resistors in a single IC-like package. An array is a subset of networks, all of which have the same ohmic value.
Spend enough time reading about machinery of any kind, and you will see repeated references to things like bolts, screws, and studs. But for the uninformed, these labels can seem interchangeable and vague? What differentiates a bolt from a screw from a stud? In this blogpost, we will explore and define these differences.
Bearings are used in many of the machines we use on a daily basis. If bearings didn’t exist, we would constantly be replacing parts, which would inevitably slow down productivity. The bearing was designed with a simple concept in mind— objects can roll better than they can slide. Bearing design is based on the magnitude and direction of the load that they are intended to support.
A constant speed propeller allows a pilot to delegate specific engine speed (RPM) per stage of flight. The ability to maintain “on” speed functioning is due to a component called the aircraft propeller governor— Ello, Guv’nor! It’s the governor's job to maintain a pilot specified RPM when the blades are moving over speed or under speed. Though turbofan and turbojet aircraft require constant speed capabilities as well, the use of a governor to achieve this is most often seen in a turboprop engine.
‘Cost effective’, ‘reliable’, and ‘efficient’— all words we love to hear about an engine, and ones that aptly describe the turboprop design. Not to be confused with turbofan and turbojet aircrafts, a turboprop powered aircraft enters a class all on its own.?
Abrasives are one of the most common tools in any manufacturing industry. They’re used to buff, sand, grind, and polish surfaces— as long as the abrasive is harder than the material you’re trying to finish, the abrasive will be very effective. Because abrasives are used for so many different applications, there are many different types to choose from.
An abrasive is a material used to polish and grind objects. There are many ways to use abrasives, making it a versatile and popular tool. Today we will be discussing various types of abrasives, the difference in roughness, and what their use.
In the aerospace and aviation industries, every rough surface, sharp edge, or imperfection has the potential to lead to disastrous consequences. Or, at the very least, cost a lot of money as a result of decreased efficiency caused by higher friction and wear-and-tear. As a result, abrasives are an important part of the manufacturing process.
Aircraft wheel bearings, like all other parts of the aircraft, need proper care and maintenance in order to continue performing at the highest capacity, which means that they need grease. But, they can not just use any grease, and certainly not automotive grease. Your average sedan isn’t going to experience the same stresses and conditions that a commercial jetliner does. Aviation parts need aviation grease specially designed with certain applications in mind. So, with that being said, here are the top 3 aviation greases for the aircraft wheel bearings.
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